Nouveaux substrats de silicium cristallin destinés aux cellules photovoltaïque à haut rendement : cas du silicium mono-like et du dopage aux donneurs thermiques liés à l’oxygène pour les cellules à hétérojonction de silicium

Abstract : This study aims to understand the electrical properties impact of the crystalline Silicon on the HeteroJunction (SHJ) solar cells performances and define the required material specifications in terms of minority carrier lifetime and bulk resistivity.In the first part of this work, the potential of the mono-like silicon was evaluated for SHJ solar cells production The high productivity of the crystallization method allows to significantly reduce the material cost. 20% efficiencies comparable to reference wafers were obtained for industrial process and had reached 21.6% values have been reached with a high efficiency process. Values above 1ms bulk lifetime were mandatory to obtain these results. The main limitations of the material properties were identified. First, the presence of multicrystalline zones on the material is incompatible with the SHJ process especially regarding the texturization step and then layers thickness’ uniformity. This defects drive down, at the first order, the Jsc and then the Voc and FF. Moreover, the metallic contamination and the dislocations generation at the ingots ends induce also a bulk lifetime degradation and PV performances drop. Finally, only 30% of the ingot height was usable to obtain high solar cell efficiencies.In the second part of this work, an innovative doping method, replacing the ones which use doping impurities, such as phosphorus, by generating thermal donors (TD) was studied. The advantages of this doping method are to use the oxygen naturally content in the silicon to generate the doping after 450°C annealing. This method is only possible if low temperature solar cell process is performed such the one used in this work. It could control the electrical properties of the crystalline silicon throughout a complete Cz ingot and increase the material yield. For a resistivity range of 3-10Ω.cm and bulk lifetime between 3 and 10ms, the TD doped material is compatible with SHJ technology. The maximum TD concentration for a SHJ application was estimated to 7x1014cm-3.The doping method was successfully transferred to the ingot scale and allowed reaching 20.7% efficiency with an industrial process and 21.7% with the “smart-wire” improved metallization. A FF loss was observed compared to the references, related to high series resistances. The origin has not been confirmed yet, but the most likely source would be the radial resistivity inhomogeneity generated by doping on silicon bulk.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 12, 2016 - 5:42:46 PM
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Frédéric Jay. Nouveaux substrats de silicium cristallin destinés aux cellules photovoltaïque à haut rendement : cas du silicium mono-like et du dopage aux donneurs thermiques liés à l’oxygène pour les cellules à hétérojonction de silicium. Génie des procédés. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAI010⟩. ⟨tel-01315189⟩

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