Etude des grands assemblages protéolytiques de la famille TET : processus d'oligomérisation et régulation fonctionnelle associée

Abstract : Proteolysis is a key function in the cell for the maintenance of the proteome integrity, the metabolism and for the regulation of many physiological processes. The thesis work is focused on a family of self-compartmentalized energy-independent cytosolic peptidases discovered in Archaea, the TET aminopeptidases. Three different TET showing contrasted enzymatic specificities co-exist in the cytosol of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, which is the model organism for this study. The structural characterization of the known members of this family shows that they self-assemble in a unique 450 kDa hollow tetrahedral structure . Recent studies have revealed the existence of peptidases complexes that adopt the same conformation in the three domains of life. The first part of this work allowed identifying structural markers to assign without any ambiguity uncharacterized peptidases to the TET family. The second objective of the work was to understand the multiplicity of TET peptidases in hyperthermophilic archaeon that was highlighted by a phylogenomic study presented in this work . The co-expression of PhTET2 and PhTET3 in E. coli revealed that the two proteins form a hetero-oligomeric complex with enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the homo-oligomers. The last part of the work addressed the question of oligomerization-function relationship in TET particles. A mutagenesis strategy was used to slow down the oligomerization process of PhTET2, and, using an integrative strategy combining biochemistry, enzymology, biophysics (SAXS and AUC) and in vivo studies we were able to dissect the oligomerization pathway of the TET particles and to demonstrate that it is a highly controlled process aim to enhance the activity of the peptidases. Finally, the contrast variation technique in small angle neutron scattering studies (SANS) allowed us to unravel the rational topology of the TET hetero-oligomers that favored the formation of multi-catalytic enzymatic pockets in the complex. All theses studies contributed to specify the biological importance of the TET molecular machines in the cells.
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Alexandre Appolaire. Etude des grands assemblages protéolytiques de la famille TET : processus d'oligomérisation et régulation fonctionnelle associée. Biologie structurale [q-bio.BM]. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENV062⟩. ⟨tel-01314147⟩

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