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Réduction combinée en chlorure de sodium et en matière grasse animale lors de la fabrication du saucisson sec : effets sur les propriétés physicochimiques et les réactions biochimiques en lien avec la production aromatique et les attributs sensoriels

Abstract : Because of public health problems, the food industry must lower sodium and animal fat contents in all food products, therefore in cured meat products. During dry-fermented sausage manufacture, a combined reduction both in salt and animal fat contents may induce microbial safety problems and textural and aroma defects due to physical-chemical and biochemical changes. On account of that, this work of thesis aims (1) to investigate the impact of a direct reduction on the salt and animal fat contents on the physical-chemical and biochemical evolutions in the products, (2) to identify the aromatic compounds responsible for the aroma of dry-fermented sausage, and their origins, (3) to develop new nutritionally-improved formulations of dry-fermented sausages with less sodium and saturated fatty acids, and (4) to study the impact of lipid and sodium chloride contents on water transfers in dry-fermented sausages and to build a specific sorption isotherm curve for dry sausages. The study of the effect of a combined direct reduction highlighted the difficulty of manufacturing sodium-reduced fat-reduced dry sausages, without affecting the physical-chemical and biochemical evolutions. Identification of odorous volatile compounds of high quality dry sausages showed that flavouring, especially garlic and black pepper, could be a good solution for improving the aromatic quality of salt-reduced fat-reduced dry-fermented sausages. The impact of flavouring and of a combined salt and animal fat replacement by potassium chloride and oleic sunflower oil, respectively, on physical-chemical properties, biochemical reactions and sensory attributes of dry-fermented sausages was then studied. This specific study showed the crucial role played by flavouring which introduces aromatic molecules that enhance the product acceptability by consumers, which acts as an enhancer of the saltiness perception and which improves the product appearance and texture by boosting the fermentation process. Consequently, the combined partial substitution is an efficient solution to preserve at best the organoleptic quality of the products, allowing, on one hand, avoiding the textural and sensory defects related to physical-chemical, proteolytic and lipolytic modifications induced by a combined direct reduction, and on the other hand, enhancing the product aroma by increasing the levels of lipid and protein oxidations. The study on water and salt transfers highlighted a salt diffusion towards the dry sausage core, and made it possible to determine values of apparent water diffusivity at the sausage surface. We demonstrated that a strong reduction in animal fat content significantly lowered the water diffusivity value at the product surface. A specific sorption isotherm curve based on a modified Ross model was built, allowing dry-fermented sausages water activity to be calculated as a function of water, fat and salt contents.
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Hassan Safa. Réduction combinée en chlorure de sodium et en matière grasse animale lors de la fabrication du saucisson sec : effets sur les propriétés physicochimiques et les réactions biochimiques en lien avec la production aromatique et les attributs sensoriels. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF22668⟩. ⟨tel-01312196⟩

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