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La mise en ordre écologique des parcs urbains. Savoirs, pratiques et paysages : Exemple d'un grand parc francilien

Abstract : In France, local public authorities have taken a growing interest in ecological landscape management of urban parks and gardens since the 1980’s. It results in the emergence of a new landscape model that embodies the encounter between two tendencies in urban territories. First, the growing influence of biological sciences on urban planning through the “urban ecology” political horizon. Second, the enlargement of nature conservation policies, that starts to include ordinary nature and urban biodiversity. The aim of this PhD was to analyse the relations between local practices, knowledge construction and landscape production, implied by the attempt of a local public authority to reconcile urban leisure and biodiversity conservation in the same place without segregation. This work was based on an ethnographic study in the Seine-Saint-Denis district near Paris, where a local model was created to express this idea, the “harmonious management” model. It emerged after a conflict about the preservation of a marsh in a large park built in the 1960’s. Today the 400 ha of the park welcome more than 2 million visitors per year. The fact that the park shelters rare birds and amphibian species, pointed at local associations, has led to the integration of this place to a Natura 2000 site. The park history is closely linked to the influence of the hygienist ideology on the urbanisation of Paris region. In contrast with this history, the redefinition of the environmental public action is associated to the implication of local public authorities in considering biodiversity as a management objective. It leads to the creation a new institutional landscape model, which management is at the confluence between horticulture and ecosystem restoration. This redefinition goes along with the reconfiguration of knowledge and practices legitimacies, where scientific approaches gain influence. The rationalisation of public action toward biodiversity conservation also goes along with the production of new constraints for city-dweller practices, and surveillance devices, which are nonetheless never complete.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 17, 2016 - 3:24:20 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01310791, version 1

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Marine Legrand. La mise en ordre écologique des parcs urbains. Savoirs, pratiques et paysages : Exemple d'un grand parc francilien. Anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France), 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01310791⟩

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