Variabilité de la mer de Barents et son impact sur le phytoplancton

Abstract : The Barents Sea has a particularly rich ecosystem. This is an Arctic region subject to intense climate changes. The drastic decrease in sea ice cover is the most visible effect. What are the impacts of these climatic changes on the hydrology and phytoplankton? In order to answer these questions, this thesis relies on the creation of an extensive historical database of physical and bio-geochemical parameters. A 3D bio-geochemical model with an Arctic specific ecosystem is used when observations are lacking. At least, remote sensing data provides valuable time series of Ice concentration, Chlorophyll-a... The Polar Front, separating the Atlantic Water coming from the Nordic Sea from the Arctic Water, is the principal feature of the Barents Sea region. Its position is known west of 35°E, but we showed that the polar front splits into two branches in the East part of the Barents Sea: the "Southern Front" and the "Northern Front". They enclose the winter locally formed Barents Sea Water. An “Atlantification”, illustrating a doubling of the Atlantic Water volume, has been evidenced and goes along with a North-eastward shift of the fronts. These hydrological and sea ice changes have a significant impact on the phytoplankton development. The two blooms of the Barents Sea occur further North and East with a 40% total anual biomass increase for the last two decades. This study suggests that the winter sea ice conditions and the frontal structure are the key mechanisms driving the inter-annual phytoplankton variability.
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Laurent Oziel. Variabilité de la mer de Barents et son impact sur le phytoplancton. Océanographie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066483⟩. ⟨tel-01309807⟩

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