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Hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche physiologique ou pathologique : Intérêt d’une approche multiparamétrique

Abstract : Introduction: the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in athlete is difficult. Indeed, intense sports practice induces an electrical and morphological physiological remodeling which can be difficult to differentiate from the changes induced in pathology. However, it is essential to diagnose an athlete with a cardiomyopathy. Indeed, in case of underlying cardiomyopathy the athlete will be at risk of sudden cardiac death, but an excessive over diagnosis has strong professional and social consequences. Methods: (1) we have tried to improve the ECG criteria’s, which enable the differentiation between ECG changes induced by exercise and the ECG changes induced by an underlying cardiomyopathy. (2) We tried to define the best investigation algorithm in case of abnormal ECG changes in athletes. (3) We tried to improve the characterization of the phenotype of athletes with HCM as compared to sedentary HCM. (4) We tried to investigate if the use of new imaging technics, i.e. speckle tracking, might improve the diagnostic accuracy and enable a better prognostic evaluation in HCM. Results: We have proposed a new classification of ECG in athletes enabling to decrease the rate of false positive ECG in athletes without decreasing its diagnostic accuracy in HCM. In case of pathological T wave inversion (PTWI) in athletes, we demonstrated that a CMR is mandatory, as echocardiography missed a diagnosis of pathology in 35% of PTWI athletes. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of HCM with current criteria’s of HCM can be challenging. Indeed, HCM athletes have a different phenotype from HCM sedentary, with a better systolic and diastolic function; they also have a better longitudinal function. The assessment of longitudinal function during exercise and mechanical dispersion are promising tool for the diagnosis of HCM in athletes. Indeed, the alteration of longitudinal strain is related to myocardial fibrosis. Exercise echocardiography, i.e. exercise mitral insufficiency, seems to be a prognostic factor in HCM patients. Conclusions: Ours results enabled to develop tools which might help to better differentiate pathological and physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); but also to better characterize LVH and the prognosis in HCM patients.
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Frédéric Schnell. Hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche physiologique ou pathologique : Intérêt d’une approche multiparamétrique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015REN1B021⟩. ⟨tel-01308520⟩

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