Approches micro-macro des dynamiques de populations hétérogènes structurées par âge. Application aux processus auto-excitants et à la démographie.

Abstract : This thesis focuses on population dynamics models and their applications, on one hand to demography and actuarial science, and on the other hand to Hawkes processes. This work explores through several viewpoints how population structures evolve over time, both in terms of ages and characteristics. In five chapters, we develop a common philosophy which studies the population at the scale of the individual in order to better understand the behavior of aggregate quantities. The first chapter introduces the motivations and details the main contributions in French. In Chapter 2, based on Bensusan et al. (2010–2015), we survey the modeling of characteristic and age-structured populations and their dynamics, as well as several examples motivated by demographic issues. We detail the mathematical construction of such population processes, as well as their link with well known deterministic equations in demography. We illustrate the simulation algorithm on an example of cohort effect, and we also discuss the role of the random environment. The two following chapters emphasize on the importance of the age pyramid. Chapter 3 uses a particular form of the general model introduced in Chapter 2 in order to study Hawkes processes with general immigrants. In this theoretical part based on Boumezoued (2015b) we use the concept of age pyramid to derive new distribution properties for a class of fertility functions which generalize the popular exponential case. Chapter 4 is based on Arnold et al. (2015) and analyses the impact of cause-of-death mortality changes on the population age pyramid, and in particular on the dependency ratio which is crucial to measure population ageing. By including birth patterns, this numerical work based on WHO data gives additional insights compared to the existing literature on causes of death focusing only on mortality indicators. The last two chapters focus on population heterogeneity. The aim of Chapter 5, based on Boumezoued et al. (2015), is to measure mortality heterogeneity on French longitudinal data called Échantillon Démographique Permanent. In this work, inspired by recent ad- vances in the statistical literature, we develop a parametric maximum likelihood method for multi-state models which takes into account both interval censoring and reversible tran- sitions. Finally, Chapter 6, based on Boumezoued (2015a), considers the general model introduced in Chapter 2 in which individuals can give birth, change their characteristics and die. The contribution of this theoretical work is the analysis of the population behavior when individual characteristics change very often. We establish a large population limit theorem for the age pyramid process, whose dynamics is described at the limit by birth and death rates which are averaged over the stable population composition.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 27, 2016 - 7:42:51 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01307921, version 1

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Alexandre Boumezoued. Approches micro-macro des dynamiques de populations hétérogènes structurées par âge. Application aux processus auto-excitants et à la démographie.. Probabilités [math.PR]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01307921⟩

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