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Development and application of optical diagnostic techniques for assessing the effects of preferential evaporation of multi-component fuels under engine-relevant conditions

Abstract : A non-intrusive quantitative laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique capable of simultaneously measuring preferential evaporation, temperature distribution, and fuel-mass concentration across a multi-component vaporized spray has been developed and investigated under engine-relevant conditions. The measurement technique is based on two-tracer LIF with single wavelength excitation.To assess preferential evaporation, a tracer pair with suitable co-evaporation and spectral properties was selected based on vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations repre-sentative for gasoline fuels. Evaporation studies have shown that one tracer (p-difluoro-benzene) co-evaporates with the high-to-medium-volatility end of the multi-component fuel while the other (1-methylnaphthalene) co-evaporates with the low-volatility end. For quantitative measurements the photophysical properties of both tracers (each tracer separately and the combined tracers) were determined under a wide range of pressure, temperature, and bath-gas composition conditions. 1-methylnaphthalene LIF shows a strong red-shift with temperature which enables measurements of the temperature distribution across the spray.Spray evaporation and vapor mixing experiments were performed in a high-pressure high-temperature vessel capable of simulating in-cylinder conditions. An ECN Spray-G and a piezo-electric outward opening injector were used in this study. Initial measure-ments were carried out with each tracer added separately to the fuel to assess signal cross-talk and to determine the best tracer concentrations. Once the proportions were determined, accuracy and precision of the method were determined from the LIF-signal ratio of spray images within identical spectral bands. Temperature fields, obtained by two-color 1-methylnaphthalene LIF and derived from fuel concentration maps based on the assumption of adiabatic evaporation, were examined for inhomogeneities in the area of interest since fluctuations potentially influence the two-color method. It was shown that the temperature is homogeneous in the measurement volume.To localize preferential evaporation, two-color two-tracer LIF images were evaluated. Taking into account the measurement accuracy and precision, variations in the spatial distribution of the fuel volatility classes were observed for 550–600 K. At higher tem-peratures, the effect is less pronounced, which is consistent with the fact that evapora-tion is faster. The localization of preferential evaporation varied with each injector used indicating the impact of injector nozzle geometry and jet structure on mixture formation.
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Lama Itani. Development and application of optical diagnostic techniques for assessing the effects of preferential evaporation of multi-component fuels under engine-relevant conditions. Electric power. Université Paris-Saclay; Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLC018⟩. ⟨tel-01304205⟩

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