Graph based approaches for image segmentation and object tracking

Xiaofang Wang 1
1 imagine - Extraction de Caractéristiques et Identification
LIRIS - Laboratoire d'InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes d'information
Abstract : Image segmentation is a fundamental problem in computer vision. In particular, unsupervised image segmentation is an important component in many high-level algorithms and practical vision systems. In this dissertation, we propose three methods that approach image segmentation from different angles of graph based methods and are proved powerful to address these problems. Our first method develops an original graph construction method. We also analyze different types of graph construction method as well as the influence of various feature descriptors. The proposed graph, called a local/global graph, encodes adaptively the local and global image structure information. In addition, we realize global grouping using a sparse representation of superpixels’ features over the dictionary of all features by solving a l0-minimization problem. Extensive experiments are conducted on the Berkeley Segmentation Database, and the proposed method is compared with classical benchmark algorithms. The results demonstrate that our method can generate visually meaningful partitions, but also that very competitive quantitative results are achieved compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. Our second method derives a discriminative affinity graph that plays an essential role in graph-based image segmentation. A new feature descriptor, called weighted color patch, is developed to compute the weight of edges in an affinity graph. This new feature is able to incorporate both color and neighborhood information by representing pixels with color patches. Furthermore, we assign both local and global weights adaptively for each pixel in a patch in order to alleviate the over-smooth effect of using patches. The extensive experiments show that our method is competitive compared to the other standard methods with multiple evaluation metrics. The third approach combines superpixels, sparse representation, and a new midlevel feature to describe superpixels. The new mid-level feature not only carries the same information as the initial low-level features, but also carries additional contextual cue. We validate the proposed mid-level feature framework on the MSRC dataset, and the segmented results show improvements from both qualitative and quantitative viewpoints compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Multi-target tracking is an intensively studied area of research and is valuable for a large amount of applications, e.g. video surveillance of pedestrians or vehicles motions for sake of security, or identification of the motion pattern of animals or biological/synthetic particles to infer information about the underlying mechanisms. We propose a detect-then-track framework to track massive colloids’ motion paths in active suspension system. First, a region based level set method is adopted to segment all colloids from long-term videos subject to intensity inhomogeneity. Moreover, the circular Hough transform further refines the segmentation to obtain colloid individually. Second, we propose to recover all colloids’ trajectories simultaneously, which is a global optimal problem that can be solved efficiently with optimal algorithms based on min-cost/max flow. We evaluate the proposed framework on a real benchmark with annotations on 9 different videos. Extensive experiments show that the proposed framework outperforms standard methods with large margin.
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Xiaofang Wang. Graph based approaches for image segmentation and object tracking. Other. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ECDL0007⟩. ⟨tel-01303748⟩

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