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Observation des amas de galaxies par effet Sunyaev-Zel'dovich et de la polarisation du fond diffus cosmologique : de Planck à NIKA

Abstract : The measurement of the matter distribution in the Universe provides valuable tests for cosmology. It can be traced at various steps of the formation of structures using the analysis of the primary and secondary anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This thesis focuses on the data analysis of the observations of the Planck satellite and that of the ground-based camera NIKA installed at the IRAM-30m telescope.The first part introduces the context, focussing on: 1) the inflation, which provides a natural origin for the matter fluctuations seen in the Universe; 2) the reionization, which corresponds to the moment when the first stars form; 3) clusters of galaxy, that are the building blocks of the more recent Universe.The second part focuses on the data reduction of the NIKA data. The development of the data reduction pipeline, allowing to go from raw data to maps, is presented. It is dedicated for the newly developed kinetic inductance detectors used by NIKA. Tools and simulations are also constructed to characterize the maps.The third part is dedicated to the observation and the analysis of galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, i.e. the inverse Compton interaction of CMB photons and free electrons in clusters. Once recovered, the SZ maps are combined to X-ray data to measure the matter content and thermodynamic properties of the observed clusters. The main results are: the first observation of the SZ effect with kinetic inductance detectors, the measurement of the pressure profile of a high redshift cluster (z=0.89), the study of point source contamination in a resolved cluster, and the SZ mapping in a triple merger.The last part is dedicated to the analysis of Planck polarization data. In particular, we discuss large angular scale systematics and the tools developed to identify and correct for them. The large scales CMB polarization data allows both to search for the imprint of the quantum fluctuations generated during inflation, and to measure the reionization.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 18, 2016 - 3:53:47 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 13, 2021 - 10:56:08 AM
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Rémi Adam. Observation des amas de galaxies par effet Sunyaev-Zel'dovich et de la polarisation du fond diffus cosmologique : de Planck à NIKA. Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique [astro-ph.CO]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAY056⟩. ⟨tel-01303736⟩

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