Positionnement GPS précis et en temps-réel dans le contexte de réseaux de capteurs sans fil type Geocube : application à des objets géophysiques de taille kilométrique

Abstract : Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) allow a multi-parameters monitoring of small extend areas thanks to cooperative data acquisition, transfer and processing. In order to combine WSN with a precise positioning of the receivers within the network using single frequency GPS modules, the Geocube has been developed by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN-France). The first part of this work focused on GPS data management and processing to allow the relative positioning of the Geocubes within a local network. To this end, a processing method customized for Geocube data and WSN environment was developed. It is based on the use of GPS carrier phase double differences and a Kalman filtering. Due to the basic GPS antenna used into the Geocube to minimize its price and its size, multipath affect position time series. Various strategies are proposed for multipath mitigation, and finally a sub-centimeter to millimeter level accuracy is reached for relative positioning depending on measurement conditions.The second part of this work was devoted to the use of Geocube networks for geophysical structures monitoring. Two test sites were selected: the Super-Sauze landslide (Ubaye valley, Alpes de Haute-Provence, France) and the Argentière glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, Haute-Savoie, France). The dynamics of the studied areas was investigated at a sub-daily time scale thanks to the high accuracy and the high time resolution of positioning time series derived from Geocubes. In addition, positioning data were acquired quite everywhere a deformation measurement was needed thanks to the low-cost of Geocubes and their easy set up.
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Lionel Benoît. Positionnement GPS précis et en temps-réel dans le contexte de réseaux de capteurs sans fil type Geocube : application à des objets géophysiques de taille kilométrique. Sciences de la Terre. Ecole normale supérieure - ENS PARIS, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENSU0014⟩. ⟨tel-01302853⟩

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