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Etude de la convection naturelle et de la stratification thermique dans une cavité inclinée et chauffée au milieu : application aux capteurs solaires autostockeurs

Abstract : Thermal regulation for dwellings in France makes the resort to renewable energy mandatory. Solar energy has an important potential regarding its availability, for both thermal and photovoltaic applications. However, due to its intermittency, there is a need for a storing device. Concerning solar thermal systems, Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heaters (ICSSWH) have the advantage of a simple design and use combined with reduced costs compared to more classical devices. These systems also enable to avoid the problem of finding space for the installation of a storage system in an existing building, making them more suitable for energy renovation of houses.This present work studies the phenomena of natural convection in an enclosed cavity with high aspect ratio (H/L = 13) representing the storage of an ICSSWH. Firstly, a state of the art of existing systems as well as a literature review of these systems and of the phenomena occurring in them are conducted. The importance of thermal stratification inside the storage tank for the increase of global efficiency for the whole system is highlighted. Secondly, an experimental study of the cavity is performed to understand the fluid flow linked to the satisfying stratification obtained in the system, and find the parameters influencing it. In the experimental setup, a stratification plate is added inside the cavity to harness the ascending hot flow, hence limiting the mixing of fluid which is responsible for the destratification. The heated zone, which represents the exchange between the solar collector and the storage, is placed in the middle of the upper wall of the system, resulting in a good thermal stratification. A reverse flow can be observed at the channel outlet, which is the main parameter for the high temperature difference obtained between the top and the bottom of our system. A CFD study of the experimented system is then conducted to determine the influence of several parameters on the thermal and fluid flow behavior of the system. The decrease of reverse flow allows a better loop of the fluid in the whole cavity. In order to discover whether the thermal stratification observed in the storage leads to a better annual efficiency for the whole ICSSWH, a nodal model is used. Several parameters such as the position of the heat exchange zone between the collector and the storage or the insulation thickness are studied to quantify their influence on thermal stratification, and hence on the overall efficiency of the system.
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Marie Swiatek. Etude de la convection naturelle et de la stratification thermique dans une cavité inclinée et chauffée au milieu : application aux capteurs solaires autostockeurs. Génie civil. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAA026⟩. ⟨tel-01301676⟩

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