Précipitation et contrainte dans le silicium implanté par hydrogène

Abstract : Hydrogen implantation at room temperature into monocrystalline silicon leads to the formation of complex defects and also to the appearance of in-plane compressive stress. During annealing hydrogen atoms and vacancies co-precipitate into platelets lying on two types of habit planes. These platelets play a decisive role in the fracture of the material that can occur during further annealing and which is used for the manufacture of SOI wafers. Thus, their nucleation mechanism has to be well understood. First, we described the formation of complexes at room temperature following the encounters of point defects formed by ion implantation. In this model, the concentrations of the formed complexes depend only on their formation energies and on the concentrations and diffusivities of point defects. Furthermore, the concentrations of the different complexes were coupled to the stress and strain build-up. Using the experimentally measured strain, we could calibrate our model and explain the mechanical reaction of silicon to hydrogen implantation. In a second part, the variation of the free Gibbs energy of the system following the nucleation of a platelet was calculated. In an unstressed crystal, this energy only relies on the habit plane of the platelet. When the system is under stress, this energy also depends on a term coupling this stress and the strain field generated by the platelet. Because those energies control the nucleation rate of the platelets variants, we could calibrate our model using the TEM observations of the platelets occurrences, as function of the stress amplitude and direction, i.e. as function of the wafer orientation and the platelet depth location. The models developed here are generic and can be applied to a wide variety of systems. They show how stress and defects interact once implantation is over and at the beginning of annealing. These models are believed to be helpful to optimize the industrial Smart Cut(tm) process by favoring the occurrence of platelets "useful" for fracture but, going beyond, to manipulate the orientation of nanocrystals in a crystalline matrix paving the way to the fabrication of "functional" nanostructures.
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François-Xavier Darras. Précipitation et contrainte dans le silicium implanté par hydrogène. Matériaux. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU30097⟩. ⟨tel-01298244⟩

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