Fonction des neurotrophines et de la neurotensine dans l'oncogénèse lymphocytaire B

Abstract : Neurotrophins are growth factors, initially discovered in the nervous system and whose functions are implicated in the growth, proliferation and survival of neuronal cells and astrocytes, and also in many other tissues. Neurotrophins can interact with their high-affinity receptors Trks. Previous work in our team showed a neurotrophin-dependent survival autocrine loop in response to cellular stress, including BDNF in several human B cell lines at various stages of B lymphocytes differentiation. These cells produce BDNF which acts in an autocrine manner on its specific tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB. BDNF transport is provided by a Vps10 domain protein named, sortilin. Neurotrophins are synthesized as biologically active precursors, pro-neurotrophins. The proBDNF may interact with a death domain neurotrophins receptor p75NTR. The interaction of proBDNF with the p75NTR receptor and its co-receptor sortilin, induces B cell apoptosis. Sortilin is expressed in human lymphocytic lines B. Sortilin can bind another neuropeptide, neurotensin (NTS) and also called NTSR3 (Neurotensin Receptor 3). Identified in the nervous system, where it acts as a neurotransmitter involved in analgesia and thermoregulation, NTS is also present in the digestive tract, and involved in the digestion and glucose regulations. Neurotensin functions are associated to the sortilin activation but also its two G-protein coupled receptors, the high and the low affinity receptors, NTSR1 and NTSR2 respectively. NTS is involved in the oncogenesis of many solid cancers, especialy by its binding to the receptor NTSR1 mainly, but also NTSR2 notably in a prostate cancer model. We have demonstrated for the first time the expression of neurotensin and its receptors NTSR1 and NTSR2 in human B lymphocytes. The pro-apoptotic stress induced by serum deprivation promotes relocation NTSR1 receptor sortilin and to the plasma membrane. Within these cells, neurotensin induces increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. These effects are blocked by the NTSR1 antagonist, SR48692/Meclinertant®. Transcriptional analyzes have detected overexpression of the receptor NTSR2 in purified B cells from patients with CLL and in lymph nodes of B-cell lymphomas patients, in contrast, the expression neurotensin is reduced. Overexpression NTSR2 induced transcriptional activation of TrkB. This receptor is expressed by B cell lines and B cells of CLL patients. The co-localization of these 2 receptors was demonstrated. This protein complex induces the activation of signaling pathways ERK, JNK and p38MAPK, after treatment with BDNF, the TrkB ligand. These data suggest a transactivation between these two receptors, depending to the metalloproteas activation. The internalization blocking of this protein complex, induces its plasma membrane sequestration and induces an increase of the signaling pathways activation. The intracellular endosomal trafficking in cells overexpressing NTSR2 cells, as detected in CLL cells, appears disrupted, which might lead to the NTSR2/TrkB complex accumulation, and releasing to the extracellular environnement. These leukemic cells are also characterized by a production of exosomes containing the TrkB/NTSR2 complex, secreted to the extracellular environement and found in excess in the plasma of patients in comparison to healthy volunteers.
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Sofiane Saada. Fonction des neurotrophines et de la neurotensine dans l'oncogénèse lymphocytaire B. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIMO0021⟩. ⟨tel-01296755⟩

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