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Theses

Étalonnage d'un espace de travail par multilatération

Abstract : This thesis aims at developing calibration procedures and methods for measuring tools such as coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and stereovision devices. This work is incorporated within the framework of a collaboration between the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais (LNE) and the Automated Production Research Laboratory (LURPA). In the scope of this thesis, multilateration is qualified as sequential because it is carried out by a single tracking interferometer (Laser Tracer) that is placed in different positions during the calibration procedure. In order to assess the calibration uncertainties, the link to the length standards is obtained through the measured lengths provided by the interferometer. Each one of these measured lengths is linked to the kinematic chain parametric errors that cause the volumetric errors of the CMM or directly to the measured points coordinates. They are assessed thanks to the study of both the calibration procedure and the performance of each component that takes part in the calibration procedure.Performing multilateration to obtain the spatial coordinates of a point requires to know both the stand points from which the point is measured and the distances between the stand points and the measured point. Practically, the stand points are the Laser Tracer positions. The proposed method aims at identifying the Laser Tracer’s positions and dead-paths lengths first in order to build a reference measuring frame, then performing multilateration. Then, if the measuring device is a CMM, its kinematic chain parametric errors are identified. For this matter, we propose a specific procedure based on the LNE knowledge on CMM calibration carried out using hole-bars. The originality of the proposed method lies in the fact that the reference measuring frame and the measuring device errors are calculated independently from each other. Plus, when addressing the case of a CMM calibration, the kinematic chain parametric errors are extracted one by one when a global optimization algorithm is usually performed nowadays.We focus on the case of CMMs calibration and we propose a precise analysis of all the sources of errors. It includes factors which influence was not studied before. They appear to result from the fact that a single tracking interferometer is used to calibrate the CMM. A simulation module based on a Monte Carlo approach has been developed. It enables the study of the influence of each source of errors independently from the other ones. Hence, the relevance of a measuring strategy can be assessed beforehand. This module simulates the behaviour of both the CMM and the Laser Tracer to evaluate uncertainties. We propose two indicators to observe the relative influence of each uncertainty factor. The first one is linked to the reference frame that is built on the successive positions of the Laser Tracer. The second one represents the global uncertainty one the kinematic chain parametric errors. This uncertainty assessment module has been successfully used to highlight the importance of sources of errors which role used to not be studied.The calibration procedure and uncertainty assessment module we propose have been successfully applied to a 3-axis cartesian CMM in laboratory conditions. Plus, since the reference measuring frame and the kinematic chain parametric errors identification are performed separately, the method we propose can be applied to other measuring devices. We especially explain how to apply it in the case of a measuring device based on stereovision.
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Martin Camboulives. Étalonnage d'un espace de travail par multilatération. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLN024⟩. ⟨tel-01294433⟩

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