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Hybrid surface plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures : Theory, numerical analysis and application to bio-sensing.

Mitradeep Sarkar 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Biophotonique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : The surface plasmons on metallic surfaces are excited by the collective oscillations of free electrons. They satisfy certain resonance conditions and their dispersion can be considered as modes of the system. The plasmons at uniform metal-dielectric interfaces manifest as evanescent electromagnetic (EM) fields confined to a few hundreds of nanometers from the metallic surface and propagate along the interface. This mode is called the Propagating surface plasmon (PSP) and is a fundamental plasmonic mode. The other fundamental modes, which are non-propagative, results from collective oscillations of free electrons on curved surfaces of metallic nano-particles. They are called localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes. We have shown that the polarizability of complex geometries with an underlying substrate can be calculated analytically and the results obtained closely approximate the resonance conditions for such geometries.In this work, various other plasmonic modes originating from the two fundamental modes were studied in details and described by their corresponding analytical formulation. In a binary metallic arrays on glass substrate, plasmonic modes are excited by diffraction orders, called the Wood-Rayleigh modes (WRM). In metallic strips the PSP is confined by the finite edges of the strips and propagate along the length of the strips, called the confined propagating plasmons (CPP).For arrays of metallic nano-particles on a metallic film, the Bragg modes (BM) are excited by diffraction of the PSP. In such structures the LSP of the nano-particles and the PSP of the film can undergo a harmonic coupling to give rise to the hybrid lattice plasmon (HLP). The characteristics of the HLP mode for an array of metallic nano-cylinders on a metallic film is presented in details.The effect of the surrounding medium on the plasmonic modes is used in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detectors which probe the shift in resonance condition of the modes. Such shift is dependent on the intrinsic dispersion of the modes. The aim of this work is to optimize the SPR detectors for affinity biosensing where probe and analyte molecules are bound to the metallic surface. We have shown that by selective functionalization of the metallic biochip surface, an enhancement of the performance of such detection can be achieved in terms of the amount of analyte used. Also the near field enhancement plays a major role in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have shown that the presence of certain modes in the system can enhance the recorded SERS intensity.Rigorous numerical methods, adapted to the particular geometry under study, were developed to compute the near and far field characteristics of different structures. The experimental excitation of the modes and their application in SPR detection was demonstrated using a setup based on a spectral scanning modality operating in the Kretschmann configuration. The various structures were fabricated on a biochip using e-beam lithography at IEF, University Paris Sud and the reflectivity dispersion from the biochip was recorded. Such experimental results were shown to be in close agreement with the theoretical results. SERS experiments were carried out in collaboration with CSPBAT at University Paris 13 and the results were seen to fit closely the theoretically predicted trends.Such detailed description of plasmonic modes can offer a complete understanding of the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon in metallic structures and be optimized as per required for various applications. The theories presented in this work can be used to effectively describe the EM properties of different geometries and experimental configurations. From a comprehensive representation of plasmonic modes, different aspects of the photon-plasmon interactions can thus be elucidated.
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Mitradeep Sarkar. Hybrid surface plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures : Theory, numerical analysis and application to bio-sensing.. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS251⟩. ⟨tel-01293656⟩

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