Prévision séquentielle par agrégation d'ensemble : application à des prévisions météorologiques assorties d'incertitudes

Abstract : In this thesis, we study sequential prediction problems. The goal is to devise and apply automatic strategy, learning from the past, with potential help from basis predictors. We desire these strategies to have strong mathematical guarantees and to be valid in the most general cases. This enables us to apply the algorithms deriving from the strategies to meteorological data predictions. Finally, we are interested in theoretical and practical versions of this sequential prediction framework to cumulative density function prediction. Firstly, we study online prediction of bounded stationary ergodic processes. To do so, we consider the setting of prediction of individual sequences and propose a deterministic regression tree that performs asymptotically as well as the best L-Lipschitz predictor. Then, we show why the obtained regret bound entails the asymptotical optimality with respect to the class of bounded stationary ergodic processes. Secondly, we propose a specific sequential aggregation method of meteorological simulation of mean sea level pressure. The aim is to obtain, with a ridge regression algorithm, better prediction performance than a reference prediction, belonging to the constant linear prediction of basis predictors. We begin by recalling the mathematical framework and basic notions of environmental science. Then, the used datasets and practical performance of strategies are studied, as well as the sensitivity of the algorithm to parameter tuning. We then transpose the former method to another meteorological variable: the wind speed 10 meter above ground. This study shows that the wind speed exhibits different behaviors on a macro level. In the last chapter, we present the tools used in a probabilistic prediction framework and underline their merits. First, we explain the relevancy of probabilistic prediction and expose this domain's state of the art. We carry on with an historical approach of popular probabilistic scores. The used algorithms are then thoroughly described before the descriptions of their empirical results on the mean sea level pressure and wind speed.
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Paul Baudin. Prévision séquentielle par agrégation d'ensemble : application à des prévisions météorologiques assorties d'incertitudes. Statistiques [math.ST]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS117⟩. ⟨tel-01292600⟩

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