Etude des liaisons entre éléments Nickel-Titane en vue d'élaboration de matériaux architecturés : réalisation, caractérisation, métallurgique et mécanique

Abstract : Nickel-Titane shape memory alloys are widely used in many fields (aerospace, biomedical) and the combination of their outstanding properties in designed structures, namely architecture materials, has been considered in last decade. Recent studies successfully fabricated cellular structures, in particular honey combs, by thermo-mechanical processing from tubes or bars but the properties of the bonds created between the components need to be carefully investigated.This work is dedicated to the study of the bonds between NiTi near-equatomic alloy (Nitinol) elements, which are created by sintering together tubes or wires and by welding tubes under load. These bonds are characterized from metallurgical, microstructural and mechanical points of view. The obtained results led to the following conclusions.To provide a reasonably strong bond between wires and between tubes, sintering should be operated at least at 1200°C during one hour under the maximal load allowed by the experimental device, 3.5 N. However, this treatment causes intense compositional changes inside the material. A subsequent aging treatment at 900oC can help in homogenizing the material but prejudicial TiNi2O phase still exists. Besides, the interdiffusion between Nitinol elements and alumina tools at 1200°C perturbs sintering experiments. The sintering route has thus found to be inadequate unless the used device allows applying a higher load, so that the temperature can be set down.Tube welding has been more successful in terms on bond strength and NiTi phase conservation, although important microstructure changes have been observed. Three zones have been identified after welding, the weld zone, with large and long grains, the heat-affected zone, with smaller, spherical grains, and the non-affected zone. The extent of these zones is estimated from local hardness measurement. The tensile resistance of the bonds is about 12 and 50 N/mm for tubes having 0.12 and 0.3 mm thickness, respectively. A standard aging treatment does not significantly change these values although it allows material homogenization. The parameters that mainly influence the resistance and the microstructure of the bond are the weld energy, the rate of release of this energy and the load. Achieving successive welding steps is not clearly beneficial.
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Thanh Dung Do. Etude des liaisons entre éléments Nickel-Titane en vue d'élaboration de matériaux architecturés : réalisation, caractérisation, métallurgique et mécanique. Matériaux. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENI022⟩. ⟨tel-01292244⟩

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