Nanoetching and structural and electrical characterisation of cristalline graphene nanoribbons

Abstract : The main objectives of this thesis are the fabrication and high-resolution structural characterisation of graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges as well as their device integration and electronic transport study. In first place, we show that crystalline graphene nanoribbons with width under 100 nm and structural properties better than the state of the art can be patterned by a focused electron beam in presence of oxygen. The structural characteristics of the ribbons are also better than the old process using water vapour. Secondly, nanoribbons structure is characterized down to the atomic scale by spherical aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. We show that the nanoribbons crystallinity, of the centre as well as along the cut edges, is preserved. The performance of our process reaches the state of the art and its reproducibility allows to produce ribbons with length of hundreds of nanometer but as narrow as 16 nm. After that, we have transposed the suspended nanoribbon etching to a partially suspended configuration on a SiO2/Si substrate allowing the integration in devices suitable for electronic transport measurements at low temperature and under magnetic field. The electronic transport in contacted ribbons of 60x300 nm shows a gap and oscillations on backgate scanning measurements that are in agreement with a Coulomb blockade mechanism with dot sizes in the range of the ribbon surface. Even though those results show the persistence of tunnel barriers, the edges quality look good enough to avoid additional confinement. Other than mesoscopic devices, our ribbon fabrication process by electronic beam under oxygen atmosphere opens perspectives in two emergent fields. The process is ultra high vacuum compatible and perfectly adapted to the development of an atomic graphene based technology. A characterisation of contaminants of graphene samples as well as electrical characterisation of graphene devices has been performed in a multiprobe scanning tunnelling microscope in ultra high vacuum. Finally, our graphene nanoribbons have the right dimensions and structural qualities required for the observation of plasmonic behaviour of graphene in visible light and so interact with metallic plasmonic structures. This coupling has been analysed by studying the Raman signal of graphene at the close environment of gold colloids.
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Marc Nunez Eroles. Nanoetching and structural and electrical characterisation of cristalline graphene nanoribbons. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU30201⟩. ⟨tel-01291334⟩

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