Le complexe taeniase/cysticercose : la phylogénie et l’évolution de Taenia solium et la biologie moléculaire appliquée au diagnostic

Abstract : Taenia soliumis responsible for two distinct diseases in humans: taeniasis and cysticercosis. The complex Taeniasis/Cysticercosis has long been investigated because of the impact of the parasite on the human and pig populations. We wanted to study this complex from the angle of the parasite-host system (intermediate host, definitive host and parasite). The main objective of this work is to deepen knowledge of this complex to lead to improved diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. We work primarily on the genetic variation of Taenia solium in different countries: Madagascar, Cameroon and Mexico. We have confirmed the existence of two genotypes that reflect the particular biogeography of T. solium. We have determined the specific nucleotide signatures allowing their distinction. We then have estimated the dates of divergence of these groups to establish the biogeographical origin of the parasite, particularly in Madagascar. The observations from T. solium were correlated with historical, genetic and archaeological data. We then expanded our study to two other Taenia that infect humans: T. saginata and T. asiatica. The origin of these parasites in humans has been studied as well as the events leading to host’s switching. We have issued several hypotheses about the major events of diversification of these parasites. Specifically, we examined their relationship with their hosts and the influence they had on the current status of these three Taenia. The second aspect of this work focuses on the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. The research was conducted on a Mexican population where cysticercosis is endemic. We compared all biological tests currently available: ELISA for the detection of antibodies, ELISA for the detection of antigen, EITB and PCR. These data were compared with clinical, epidemiologic and imaging information. We determined the intrinsic parameters (specificity and sensitivity) of each method and the correlation between the different tests. We have also studied the effect of CSF inflammation on test results. We propose to incorporate the PCR as a diagnostic tool for neurocysticercosis in combination with others tests.
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Lorraine Michelet. Le complexe taeniase/cysticercose : la phylogénie et l’évolution de Taenia solium et la biologie moléculaire appliquée au diagnostic. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université de Limoges, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LIMO310I⟩. ⟨tel-01289212⟩

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