Raccourcissement alpin du massif des Ecrins : cinématique, calendrier tectonique et conditions pression-température

Abstract : This field-based study of the Ecrins massif (Western Alps, external zone) show that the Alpine shortening is accomodated within the basement by brittle-ductile top-to-the-west reverse shear zones (probably localized by half-graben) as well as by the thrust sheets of La Meije and Combeynot to the east of the massif. The N-S normal fault do not seems to be reactivated. These shear zones are characterized by a phengitisation of feldspars along anastomosing planes whose geometry reflect a strain gradient which explain the "basement folds" formation underlined by the geometry of Triassic teguments. The maximum temperatures reach by the cover, due to the burial under the internal nappes are close to the isotherms 335°C for a geothermal gradient close to 20-25°C.km-1 from Bourg d'Oisans to the Penninic Frontal Thrust (PFT). The shear zones were dated between 33 to 25 Ma (40Ar/39Ar on syn-kinematics phengites), suggesting that they were initiated slightly after the burial which start close to 34 Ma. The phyllonites show younger ages than mylonite; that argue a localization of the deformation along these anastomosing planes between 30 to 25Ma and traduce a weak crust. The NW-Se shortening observed alonf the PFT seems to be coeval with the E-W to NE-SW shortening of the Ecrins massif. A sinistrial transpressive diffuse shear zones between the Ecrins massif and the Ligurian Alps, which is probably a reactivated Liassic transfer zone, can explaina part of the Oligocene building kinematics of the Western Alps. During Miocence, the deformation is localized along a crustal thrust under the Belledonne massif, which has given the Vercors massif, and along the PFT, reactivated as a normal fault.
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Mathieu Bellanger. Raccourcissement alpin du massif des Ecrins : cinématique, calendrier tectonique et conditions pression-température. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ORLE2080⟩. ⟨tel-01288545⟩

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