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L'oeuvre d'art à l'époque des biotechnologies : enjeux esthétiques

Abstract : The purpose of my research is to define the aesthetic aims of works of bioart. Its starting point is the need to make an aesthetic analysis of some productions of this movement in order to understand its strategies, for these are wrongly considered as coming from Duchamp’s readymade, since bioartists tend to use biotechnologies to create works of art. This research suggests “bioart” gathers various works which involve biotechnologies inasmuch as they manage to transform the living. In this thesis, three bioartworks are studied: Que le cheval vive en moi, by French artists Art Objet orienté, Natural History of the Enigma, by American artist E. Kac and Ear on Arm by the Australian Stelarc. In order to define the aesthetic aims of these three works of art, an analysis grid inspired by semiology highlights aesthetical mechanisms. This analysis shows that “embodiment” is the main plastic way to art. This embodiment provokes a “sense of presence” in the works of the corpus, which can be identified as their “aura”. The aura allows the viewer to become aware of the biological realm of existence he shares with the artworks themselves. Therefore the aura is the manifestation of the contact between the viewer and the biotechnological meaning of the work. This implies that the works of the corpus embody their messages. The corpus has been compared to the Byzantine icons, which also “embody” their messages, in order to understand to what extent the biotechnological production of the living in art represents such a shift in art theory. By using biotechnologies, the works of the corpus testify about cybernetics, which is one of the main organizing principles of globalization and of the increasing presence of technology in human ways of life. It even appears that with the creation of technical living subjects, they pave the way for the evolution of technical objects, as it was conceptualized by Simondon – this is how the thesis comes to its conclusion.
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Teva Flaman. L'oeuvre d'art à l'époque des biotechnologies : enjeux esthétiques. Art et histoire de l'art. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BOR30035⟩. ⟨tel-01288490⟩

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