Les entrepreneurs par nécessité : d’une dichotomie simplificatrice à un continuum complexe : définitions et typologie des entrepreneurs par nécessité : étude de la dimension effectuale des processus de création par nécessité

Abstract : Necessity entrepreneurs create ventures since they perceive they can find no other suitable work. The number of research articles on the subject has skyrocketed in the 2000s. Some of these papers influence the public policies worldwide, aiming at reducing unemployment by stimulating entrepreneurship, especially at a time of economic crisis. Necessity entrepreneurs are opposed to opportunity entrepreneurs, who pursue profitable market opportunities, in a commonly accepted dichotomy. First part of our doctoral dissertation presents how the « necessity entrepreneurship » concept developed. A second chapter summarizes the current global state of knowledge on necessity entrepreneurship, based on a thorough literature review. Particular focus is placed on the wide range of definitions. In a third part, we demonstrate that the « necessity entrepreneurship » category is not a reliable one. Although widely found in research papers, it is not a solid concept to identify entrepreneurs : its meanings vary according to regions, individuals, social and economic contexts. Fourth chapter of this work proposes a typology of necessity entrepreneurs to illustrate in eight categories the various profiles encountered in the literature. A quantitative exploratory study based on a sample of 1000 French entrepreneurs offers a first validation tool for the typology and gives percentages of entrepreneurs per profile. An operational list of all necessity factors, internal or external, unchangeable or modifiable, has then been developed to measure a degree of criticality and assign a score to necessity entrepreneurs. In order to improve the mentoring of necessity entrepreneurs, to develop their resilience and venture's success, last part of this paper is devoted to an in-depth analysis of necessity entrepreneurial processes. Therefore we used the biographical method in the framework of the effectuation theory. Specific issues and barriers related to necessity entrepreneurial venture set up have been identified, especially concerning resources gathering, funding and stakeholders' involvement. It appears necessity entrepreneurs resort to effectuation spontaneously and by default. However, although effectual principals have been developed based on expert entrepreneurs, it seems that applied by necessity entrepreneurs, they are no guaranty of success at all. As a conclusion, we demonstrate that teaching effectuation should however structure necessity entrepreneurial processes in a straightforward manner, in order to increase self-confidence and self-esteem of necessity entrepreneurs.
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Christel Tessier Dargent. Les entrepreneurs par nécessité : d’une dichotomie simplificatrice à un continuum complexe : définitions et typologie des entrepreneurs par nécessité : étude de la dimension effectuale des processus de création par nécessité. Gestion et management. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAG002⟩. ⟨tel-01286640⟩

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