Développement d'une approche innovante de modélisation de la cinétique de décomposition thermique des matériaux solides en espaces confinés sous-ventilés. Application aux incendies en tunnel

Abstract : Tunnel fires are severe phenomenon whose evolution, usually very fast, can lead to important damages to persons and properties. Tunnel fire safety is based on the use of empirical models, very simplified that describes the evolution of the fire kinetic. Nevertheless, these models does not take into account neither the type of material that are involved in the phenomenon, such as constitutive polymers of road vehicles nor their reactivity in solid phase (thermal decomposition). In order to provide an evolution of the fire description, function of the conditions usually encountered in a tunnel, a predictive model aiming to describe materials’ thermal decomposition has been developed. This mathematical model has been established on the basis of an experimental approach, at small scale, using the Controlled Atmosphere Cone Calorimeter coupled to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. The thermal degradation of three different materials (Polyisocyanurate foam, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) has been thoroughly assessed function of key parameters that drives the decomposition process during fire: oxygen concentration and heat flux imposed to the materials. Obtained results for the three materials have then been used to construct multifactorial polynomial regressions, using the methodology known as surface response methodology. The model allows defining the response of the decomposition kinetics (explained variable), function of both the oxygen concentration and the heat flux received at the surface of the material (explanatory variable). Comparisons between numerical and experimental obtained results show the relevance of this approach.
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Fabien Hermouet. Développement d'une approche innovante de modélisation de la cinétique de décomposition thermique des matériaux solides en espaces confinés sous-ventilés. Application aux incendies en tunnel. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ESMA0020⟩. ⟨tel-01286548⟩

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