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Magnesium for biomedical applications as degradable implants : thermomechanical processing and surface functionalization of a Mg-Ca alloy

Abstract : Since the last decade, degradable implants for bone fixation have attracted special attention. Among different materials, magnesium appears as a promising candidate due to its unique combination of properties. Magnesium is very well tolerated by the body, it has a natural tendency for degradation and its low elastic modulus helps to reduce stress-shielding effect during bone healing. However, an optimal compromise between mechanical resistance and degradability kinetics has to be achieved. Since calcium is biocompatible and has several beneficial effects on magnesium, the alloy selected for this project is: Mg-2wt.%Ca alloy. To optimize this alloy for implant application, we propose a bulk/surface approach: i.e. tailoring the bulk microstructure by thermomechanical treatments and surface functionalization by additive manufacturing.Hot rolling and extrusion, and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been used to tailor the microstructure. Severe plastic deformation induced by the ECAP process produces the finest grain and second particle phase microstructure. While different microstructural features (dislocations, twins, grain size) can account for the increase of the mechanical strength, the evolution of the corrosion resistance appears as primarily affected by grain size and second phase microstructure. This influence results from the combination of a micro galvanic effect, the dispersion of the second phase Mg2Ca and possibly a more stable oxide layer. Finally ECAP appears as the most efficient processing to improve both mechanical and corrosion behavior.Surface functionalization is achieved by designing a surface pattern using microdeposition with silver nanoparticles to add an antibacterial effect. The deposition is followed by a laser sintering process. A series of deposition were performed to optimize the deposition conditions for silver nanoparticles. The layer topography, the sintering, and the thermal impact of the laser treatment on the substrate microstructure have been characterized by profilommetry, SEM, TEM. A finite element simulation has been realized to describe the thermal effect of the laser treatment. This simulation can be further used for optimizing the patterning deposition process.Combining the bulk and surface approach have permitted to obtain a functionalized magnesium alloy with enhanced properties that can be considered for further biomedical tests.
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Olivier Jay. Magnesium for biomedical applications as degradable implants : thermomechanical processing and surface functionalization of a Mg-Ca alloy. Materials. University of Waterloo (Canada), 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAI104⟩. ⟨tel-01286085⟩

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