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Liberté et souveraineté : le problème de l'expérience chez Sartre et Bataille

Abstract : In this dissertation, we seek to construct a dialogue between Sartre and Bataille whose confrontation in the forties and fifties should be considered, in our view, as an encounter between two ways of thinking experience and existence that we would like to call, respectively, « thinking of liberty » and « thinking of sovereignty ». We are going to, firstly, outline how these two thinkings could encounter with each other in a confrontational way and, for this purpose, to restore the horizon from which they were able to formulate themselves : if Sartre criticized Bataille for confusing, in The inner experience, the scientific attitude with the existentialiste one and, therefore, describing an experience which is not inner at all, that’s because in adopting a phenomenological method to describe the concrete encounter of existence – which is temporal – by itself, he understood « experience » as what the German phenomenologists called « Erlebnis », namely a sphere of immanence which is radically infusionnable with other spheres of the same type, while the inner experience as Bataille defined it culminates precisely in a fusion of the inner and the exterior that he considered as the fundamental demanding of a developped phenomenology of mind in responding to which he required an immediate existence, that is to say an existence without daly, immerged in the instant. What’s at stake in such a divergence on the meaning of experience and, correspondingly, of existence has much further implications in that both of these two thinkers had the very intention to establish the morality except that for one, it’s a morality of sovereignty whose meaning is paradoxically hypermoral while for the other, it should be a morality of liberty that can only be reached through a radical conversion. What could we learn from these two moralities ? How are they linked to two different, even opposite ways of thinking experience and existence ? These are the two questions that we will try, finally, to respond in order to better measure the stakes of the confrontation between Sartre and Bataille and thus to establish a dialogue which seems prima facie improbable.
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Chunming Wang. Liberté et souveraineté : le problème de l'expérience chez Sartre et Bataille. Philosophie. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL30041⟩. ⟨tel-01285995⟩



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