The developmental polarity and morphogenesis of a single cell

Abstract : How cells establish their proper shapes and organization is a fundamental biological problem. In this thesis, I investigated the dynamic development of cellular form and polarity in the rod-shape fission yeast cell. These studies are based on monitoring how small symmetric fission yeast spores grow and self-organize to break symmetry for the definition of their very first polarity axis. In a first part, I studied interplays between surface mechanics of the spore cell wall and the stability of Cdc42-based polarity domains which control spatio-temporal aspects of spore symmetry breaking. In a second part, I studied mechanisms by which these polarity domains control their width and adapt it to cell surface geometry, a process likely relevant to understand how functional cortical domains scale to cell size. Overall these novel investigations focusing on how cells dynamically develop their form and polarity de novo highlight complex feedbacks in morphogenesis that cannot be evidenced by looking at cells at “steady state” or with genetics.
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Daria Bonazzi. The developmental polarity and morphogenesis of a single cell. Cellular Biology. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB010⟩. ⟨tel-01283851⟩

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