Modélisation et optimisation de l'interaction entre véhicules électriques et réseaux d'électricité : apport de la théorie des jeux

Abstract : This thesis studies the technical and economical interaction between electric vehicles and electrical networks. The recent development of electric mobility leads to the analysis of potential impacts of electric vehicle charging on the electrical networks, but also to the possible support that these particular electric consumers could provide in the future smart grids. In this direction, most of the results given in this thesis also apply to a washing machine, a water-heater, a TV, as soon as these equipments are capable of being smart! When the decisions of flexible electric consumers interact, the considered framework naturally offers a unique exercise area for the tools of game-theory. The interpretation is straightforward when the considered problem is strategic by definition, but these tools allow also shedding light on other aspects: algorithmic coordination, information exchange, etc. The description of the benefits of using game-theory in this context is the aim of this work. This is done according to three aspects. In these three directions, a particular attention is drawn to the case of rectangular charging profiles, which are very practical, but often ignored by the literature. First, algorithmic issues arise when coordinating the charging of electric vehicles in a same area of the electrical network. A charging algorithm is proposed and analyzed. This is done by studying an underlying auxiliary game. This game is proved to belong to the class of potential games under very general physical and economic assumptions. In turn, it inherits from the strong properties of this class of games, namely convergence and an efficiency result in the case of a large number of electric vehicles. Considering information exchange, a model is proposed to design a good communication scheme between an operator of the electrical system and an electric vehicle. Both agents have an interest in exchanging information to schedule optimally the charging profile of the electric vehicle but they do not share the same objective. This framework is closely related to Cheap-talk in game theory and to quantization in signal processing. Amongst others, this work explains interesting connections between both topics. Furthermore, a method, which is used offline, is given to obtain a good communication mechanism between both agents. Finally, game theory is used in its traditional form, studying the strategic interaction when groups of a large number of electric vehicles – seen as fleets – coexist with individual vehicles. This allows the application of the very recent concept of composite games. In the three parts of the work, simulations are conducted in a French realistic distribution network, which could be the first part of the electrical system severely impacted by a non-coordinated charging. This highlights the robustness of rectangular charging profiles against forecasting errors on the parameters of the models.
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Olivier Beaude. Modélisation et optimisation de l'interaction entre véhicules électriques et réseaux d'électricité : apport de la théorie des jeux. Théorie de l'information [cs.IT]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS131⟩. ⟨tel-01283737v2⟩

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