De la crise urbaine à la réappropriation du territoire. Mobilisations civiques pour la justice environnementale et alimentaire dans les quartiers défavorisés de Detroit et du Bronx à New York.

Abstract : American cities are still affected by the urban crisis, patent through the existence of low-income inner city neighborhoods, concentrating the urban poor and ethnic minorities. The neighborhoods of Jefferson-Mack in Detroit and Hunts Point in the South Bronx in New York are both considered iconic illustrations of the urban crisis. Yet they have witnessed substantial environmental and food justice activism for two decades. The purpose of this thesis is to understand how grassroots environmental and food practices can be used to improve living conditions for inner city communities. The first section analyzes how these two blighted neighborhoods are products of a structural urban crisis. By using a corpus of urban social geography and urban studies specialized in urban decline and shrinking cities, we demonstrate how the daily lives of residents reveal a “crisis of urban living” rather than an urban crisis, and how noxious uses and pollution as well as limited environmental and food access are key factors triggering grassroots activism. The second section is grounded in a corpus of studies on environmental justice and food justice, in order to explore the role of environmental and food justice activism in these neighborhoods. We defend that the hybridity between environmental, food, social and spatial issues reconfigured grassroots activism. The third section mobilizes a corpus of commons studies to analyze the challenges of reclaiming urban space. By studying the rise of urban agriculture and other environmental amenities, facilitated by the reuse of vacant land, we explore the multiple benefits of community urban space reclamation. Beyond environmental and food benefits, and despite some conflicting issues, reclaiming urban space allows transformative processes to noticeably yet incompletely improve living conditions.
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Submitted on : Saturday, March 5, 2016 - 1:39:46 PM
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Flaminia Paddeu. De la crise urbaine à la réappropriation du territoire. Mobilisations civiques pour la justice environnementale et alimentaire dans les quartiers défavorisés de Detroit et du Bronx à New York.. Géographie. Université Paris 4 Sorbonne, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01283583⟩

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