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Analyses métabolomiques du vin : "chemical messages in a bottle"

Abstract : The main objective of this work was to develop non-targeted metabolomics analyses of bottled wines in order to decipher chemical informations from the time-related evolution of their composition. This original research was based on the hypothesis that, when analyzed, bottled wines would still hold chemical memories of envionmental parameters (vineyard management, oenological practices, climate, terroir…) at the moment of their elaboration, even after several years of ageing. A second hypothesis was that in order to anticipate the future evolution of the wine quality in terms of chemical composition, it is necessary to know what it was in the past. To that purpose, and for the first time in wine science, Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance – Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS), Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS), Excitation Emission Matrix Fluorescence (EEMF) and multivariate statistics were used in combination. Methodological develoments revealed the advantage of coupling exact mass measurements by FTICR-MS to isomeric discrimination by UPLC-Q-ToF-MS in order to extend the range of detectable metabolites. Such tools were applied to the identification of ageing markers in vertical series of red and white wines from Burgundy, including very old wines (unknown vintages) considered as evolution end points, thus introducing the concept of verticalomics. The characterization of series of white wines from Burgundy (Chardonnay) revealed that chemical spaces specifically related to eonological practices (SO2 addition at pressing, settling level, and permeability of the stopper) could indeed be deciphered although the vintage signatures were confirmed to be the most significant. Similar experiments on Champagne wines (Chardonnay, and blends of Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier) after the "prise de mousse" and the ageing "sur lattes" further highlighted the hormesis effect associated with the oxygenation of wine. Finally, non-targeted analyses of series of grape extracts and corresponding wines from different appelations – though elaborated by the same winemaker – revealed that terroir-related signatures could be indeed read in wines, in particular after a few years of bottle ageing. Altogether our results provide an unprecedented comprehensive description of the chemical composition of wine and its modification through ageing.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 3, 2016 - 9:12:07 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01281917, version 1



Chloé Roullier-Gall. Analyses métabolomiques du vin : "chemical messages in a bottle". Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Bourgogne, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014DIJOS080⟩. ⟨tel-01281917⟩



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