Exploitation des mesures électriques en vue de la surveillance et du diagnostic en temps réel des piles à combustible pour application transport automobile

Abstract : In the current global energy context, proton exchange membrane fuel cells represent a promising solution to the future development of a new generation of electrified vehicles, allowing greater autonomy than electrified vehicles using batteries.Nevertheless, the large-scale development of fuel cells remains limited due to some technological locks, such as water management. To enable mass production of fuel cells, such problems must be solved. Several working axes may be envisaged both on the hardware aspects of the fuel cell structure, and from the point of view of control, by developing algorithmic tools for monitoring the operating state of the system to detect any failures, or degradations that may occur.The work of this thesis falls within this second approach and focuses specifically on the identification of drying and drowning phenomena which can appear in a fuel cell, to diagnose any moisture problems leading to yield reduction.The methods developed in this work are based on the monitoring of relevant parameters of the fuel cell model which changes, compared to reference values, are characteristic of the state of the fuel cell hydration.The real-time monitoring of these parameters can highlight the drying and drowning phenomena.Adopted models for this work are based on a representation of the electrical impedance of the fuel cell.Thus, following this approach, the adopted strategy is then based on the development of two electrical models: an integer order model and a fractional order model. It appears that the second model formulation is closer to the physical reality of transport phenomena occurring in the fuel cell. It allows a better representation of the fuel cell behavior in time and frequency domain. Indeed, the analyzes based on experimental results performed using a single fuel cell (100 cm2 active area designed by UBzM company) have validated that the fractional order model, in return for an increase of complexity, allows better reproduce, in the one hand of the fuel cell time-series voltage response (voltage monitoring for a given current profile), on the other hand a better approximation of the measured impedance. Conventional and of fractional order parametric identification methods are then used to extract the model’s parameters from time-series experimental data (voltage / current from the battery) or frequency data (impedance spectroscopy).A sensitivity analysis allows then the defining of the most indicative parameters of the drowning and drying phenomena. The evolution of these parameters associated with the voltage and impedance spectrum of the fuel cell are then combined to build a diagnosis strategy of the fuel cell water management.
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Miassa Taleb. Exploitation des mesures électriques en vue de la surveillance et du diagnostic en temps réel des piles à combustible pour application transport automobile. Autre. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLC010⟩. ⟨tel-01281328⟩

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