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Une reconstruction conjointe de la dynamique et de la gravitation newtoniennes. Conception et évaluation d’une séquence d’enseignement inspirée par l’histoire et l’épistémologie de la physique

Abstract : This work proposes a teaching approach of the Newtonian theory. One of the central intentions is to justify the concepts and formulae which constitute it, via a progressive pathway enabling to reconstruct them. In particular one of the conceptual target is the notion of terrestrial attraction, which is most of the time asserted, although it is not self-evident. The interpretation of free fall as a natural motion - in Antiquity and still to Galileo – is used to question the Newtonian concept of force. The purpose is to introduce it by showing its dependency to a natural motion of reference, redefined by the first law of motion, justifying then its relation to acceleration. This formulation aims at insisting on the specific concept definition of the theory, in order to foster its distinction from the common sense ideas about force and motion. Following this formulation of dynamics, is presented the reasoning - inspired by Newton’s one - leading to the relationship between the revolution of planets, of the Moon, and free fall on Earth. This pathway enables to justify that the force associated to free fall acceleration can be associated to the presence of the Earth. It leads furthermore to the justification of the idea of universal attraction, as well as to the construction of the gravitational force expression. At the epistemological level, the pathway leading to relate these various phenomena highlights the role of unification of a physical theory. A teaching sequence has been developed on the basis of this approach and experimented with high school and first year university students. One of the results observed is a strong interest of students for the justification of concepts definitions and formulae.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 7, 2016 - 9:33:50 AM
Last modification on : Monday, November 30, 2020 - 3:11:16 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01279581, version 1

Citation

Valentin Maron. Une reconstruction conjointe de la dynamique et de la gravitation newtoniennes. Conception et évaluation d’une séquence d’enseignement inspirée par l’histoire et l’épistémologie de la physique. Enseignement de la physique [physics.ed-ph]. Université Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01279581⟩

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