Interactions entre écosystèmes marins et pressions anthropiques. Applications au suivi et à la gestion des eaux côtières de la mer Méditerranée

Abstract : During the last century, human activities were at the origin of increasing pressures impacting marine coastal ecosystems. Scientific data concerning this phenomena are fragmentary and the grid scale (1 x 1 kilometer pixel) is insufficient to permit relevant local decision making. The management of these multiple and simultaneous threats necessitates reliable and accurate data concerning the distribution of pressures and the localization of the most sensitive ecosystems. This is at the origin of two European directives: the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In response to these directives, the objectives of this work were to characterize the vulnerability and sensitivity of two priority ecosystems: Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds and coralligenous reefs. Focusing on the French Mediterranean coastline (depth ranging from 0 to – 100 m), results were: the fine-scale (20 x 20 m pixel size) quantification and localization of the encountered anthropogenic pressures, the quantification and localization of these two priority ecosystems, and the assessment of their ecological state. Seagrass beds decline was modelled in link with depth and pressures; resistance thresholds to pressures, but also management priority areas were defined. This work should contribute to improve the development of indicators for the ecological state of coastal ecosystems. It should also help to better apply and coordinate management actions at a relevant scale for biodiversity conservation.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 26, 2016 - 12:14:36 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01279487, version 1

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Florian Holon. Interactions entre écosystèmes marins et pressions anthropiques. Applications au suivi et à la gestion des eaux côtières de la mer Méditerranée. Ecosystèmes. Université de Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01279487v1⟩

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