Transport de matière au sein du film passif : Développement d’une méthodologie sélective corrélant les Point Defect Model et les modèles descriptifs

Abstract : Developments in metallic bipolar plate, to apply more widely fuel cells, require an improved of the constitutive material. The use of stainless steel calls for a good understanding of the passive film. The required specifications are for good electrical conductivity and a long life-time. Those two parameters correspond to a correlation between the semiconductive properties and the good corrosion behavior. Nevertheless, the main problems of the passivity lie on the multiplicity of the phenomena that alter the passive film behavior. Numerous models described in the literature can be used to characterize the passivation. The Point Defect Model (PDM) describes the passivation through electrochemical reactions at the metal / oxide and at the oxide / electrolyte interfaces. The reactivity is limited by mass transport through the oxide. From the literature, those phenomena seems to be a discriminating parameter in the choice of a model. The selective method proposed allows us to use each model taking into account their specifics. This methodology is based on the correlation between the mass transport characterization, thanks to the PDM, and the analysis of the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The PDM determines the transport coefficient apart from EIS measurements, so to validate the consideration of the mass transport during the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectra. The evolution of the main charge carrier density as a function of the oxide formation potential allows us to calculate the transport coefficient from PDM equations. Thanks to the thickness of the oxide (determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), the time constant of the mass transport is determined. Based on this value, a descriptive model is used to analyze the EIS data, avoiding overparametrization. This method is applied first on a model material, pure chromium exposed to acidic solution (pH 2) at several temperatures (30°C and 80°C). It shows that the mass transport has to be taken into account at 80°C and the EIS model considers an inner chromium oxide layer and an outer chromium hydroxide. Secondly, the method is used to characterize an industrial material, AISI 316L stainless steel, at several pH (1, 2 and 3) and at several temperatures (30°C and 80°C). In this case, the oxide is describe as a p-n semiconductor junction with an chromium rich inner layer and an outer iron rich layer. The present methodology permits to deeply characterize the AISI 316L stainless steel. Even if this study concerns the substrate, this step is decisive to improve the performances of the metallic bipolar plates
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Clémént Boissy. Transport de matière au sein du film passif : Développement d’une méthodologie sélective corrélant les Point Defect Model et les modèles descriptifs. Matériaux. INSA de Lyon, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ISAL0136⟩. ⟨tel-01278505⟩

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