Conception et analyse des biopuces à ADN en environnements parallèles et distribués

Abstract : Microorganisms represent the largest diversity of the living beings. They play a crucial rôle in all biological processes related to their huge metabolic potentialities and their capacity for adaptation to different ecological niches. The development of new genomic approaches allows a better knowledge of the microbial communities involved in complex environments functioning. In this context, DNA microarrays represent high-throughput tools able to study the presence, or the expression levels of several thousands of genes, combining qualitative and quantitative aspects in only one experiment. However, the design and analysis of DNA microarrays, with their current high density formats as well as the huge amount of data to process, are complex but crucial steps. To improve the quality and performance of these two steps, we have proposed new bioinformatics approaches for the design and analysis of DNA microarrays in parallel and distributed environments. These multipurpose approaches use high performance computing (HPC) and new software engineering approaches, especially model driven engineering (MDE), to overcome the current limitations. We have first developed PhylGrid 2.0, a new distributed approach for the selection of explorative probes for phylogenetic DNA microarrays at large scale using computing grids. This software was used to build PhylOPDb: a comprehensive 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe database for prokaryotic identification. MetaExploArrays, which is a parallel software of oligonucleotide probe selection on different computing architectures (a PC, a multiprocessor, a cluster or a computing grid) using meta-programming and a model driven engineering approach, has been developed to improve flexibility in accordance to user’s informatics resources. Then, PhylInterpret, a new software for the analysis of hybridization results of DNA microarrays. PhylInterpret uses the concepts of propositional logic to determine the prokaryotic composition of metagenomic samples. Finally, a new parallelization method based on model driven engineering (MDE) has been proposed to compute a complete backtranslation of short peptides to select probes for functional microarrays.
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Faouzi Jaziri. Conception et analyse des biopuces à ADN en environnements parallèles et distribués. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22465⟩. ⟨tel-01276669⟩

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