Extraction de fragments forestiers et caractérisation de leurs évolutions spatio-temporelles pour évaluer l'effet de l'histoire sur la biodiversité : une approche multi-sources

Abstract : Biodiversity in landscapes depends on landscape spatial patterns but can also be influenced by landscape history. Indeed, some species are likely to respond in the longer term to habitat disturbances. Therefore, in recent years, landscape dynamics have become a possible factor to explain current biodiversity. The aim of this thesis in GIS is part of this historical ecology context. We are dealing with automatic extraction of forest patches and characterization of their spatiotemporal evolution. The objective is to evaluate forest dynamics effects on current diversity of forest hoverflies. (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the agri-forestry landscape of Coteaux de Gascogne. The proposed general approach consists of three main steps: (1) the forest spatial database production from heterogeneous sources, (2) forest patches matching and characterization of their spatiotemporal evolution, (3) species-habitat modeling while integrating history as one of the factors likely to explain hoverflies diversity. Several methodological contributions were made. We proposed a new geometric correction approach based on kernel ridge regression to make consistent past and present selected data sources. We also developed an automatic extraction approach of forest from Historical Map of France of the 19th century. Finally, spatial uncertainty effects on ecological models responses have been assessed. From an ecological viewpoint, a significant effect from historical continuity of patches on forest hoverflies diversity was revealed. The most isolated fragments presented an extinction debt or a colonization credit according to area dynamics occurred in the last time-period (1970-2010). As it turns out, 30 years was not sufficient for forest hoverflies to reach new equilibrium after isolated habitat changes.
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Pierre-Alexis Herrault. Extraction de fragments forestiers et caractérisation de leurs évolutions spatio-temporelles pour évaluer l'effet de l'histoire sur la biodiversité : une approche multi-sources. Géographie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU20018⟩. ⟨tel-01276544⟩

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