Simulateur Électromagnétique d’Erreur VOR par Méthodes Déterministes – Application aux Parcs Éoliens

Abstract : Considering the ecological emergency, the renewable energy development has greatly increased for a decade. In particular, the windfarms implantation rapidly expands in Europe. These windturbines are large obstacles composed by dielectric and metallic materials. So their impact on electromagnetic devices is significant. The radionavigation systems for the civil aviation services are particularly concerned. However, they have to work side with new windfarms. Actually, these latter cause scattering effects on the electromagnetic signals and can degrade the performances of these equipments (multipaths, shadowing effects etc.). Thus, quantifying these degradations is crucial, particularly on the VOR devices where multipath effects cause an error on the azimuth. In this thesis work, an electromagnetic simulator called VERSO (VOR ERror SimulatOr) is developed. It can estimate the impact of scattering objects, especially windturbines, on the VOR signal. In literature, several techniques are proposed to model these phenomena: some make coarse approximations and some others are memory intensive. Thus, the choice over the methods used in VERSO is a compromise between precision and memory requirement. The parabolic equation is used to model the propagation from the source to the windturbines so as to take the relief into account. A physical optic based method is used to compute the field scattered by these objects. The electromagnetic model of the windturbine and the hypothesis due to the methods used by VERSO have been validated in the VHF (VOR) frequency by comparison with the method of moments, which is the reference. An extension of VERSO for the radar systems is introduced. Consequently similar validations have been performed at radar frequencies. In particular, a windturbine blade model taking into account the lightning protection is proposed for the VOR and the radar frequencies. The shadowing effects are also quantified in both frequency domains. Especially, a demonstration that the shadowing effects due to radially implemented windturbines can be neglected around a VOR beacon is proposed. This approximation and the blade model are used for the implementation of VERSO. This simulator is validated by comparison with measurements on 9 windturbines built 5~km far from a VORC in Boulogne-sur-Mer (France). A study is performed to quantify the influence of each part of the windturbine. The mast is shown to be the main contributor regarding to the electromagnetic field and the VOR error. Finally, parametric simulations are performed and analytic expressions are proposed to describe the evolution of the maximum VOR error with respect to the mast size and the distance VOR-windturbine. The latter study gives some key parameters that need to be considered for the elaboration of a windfarm building plan close to civil aviation systems for the project to be viable.
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Ludovic Claudepierre. Simulateur Électromagnétique d’Erreur VOR par Méthodes Déterministes – Application aux Parcs Éoliens. Electromagnétisme. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01275890⟩

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