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Environnements numériques et PME : figures du chaos et nouveaux usages

Abstract : Is the revolution of the so-called Web 2.0 a real success for the SMEs? Do we really see a change of the communication paradigm (following Kuhn’s meaning) due to the arrival of the networks that put the individual at the centre of the organization processes? Within the framework of a “fluid society” characterised by uncertainty and complexity, this thesis focuses on the issue of internal and external adjustments in connection with the Web 2.0 within SMEs. These adjustments may be a source of disorder within the organization and SMEs would try to regulate them. Nevertheless, some SMEs will choose to use them as a springboard. They will build on existing skills, improve the efficiency of the company (operating activity) and also explore completely new fields (exploration activity) like collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. The web 2.0 indicates the passage of a "tools" technology considered as stable to a "social" technology characterized by instability. The Web 2.0 has a catalytic effect that encourages and facilitates transversal adjustments. It could be seen as a way to transform the organization in order to become more focused on individuals and groups. But it also brings a number of challenges for SMEs. Using the concepts of chaos and complexity was an interesting way to understand this balance to be attained between order and disorder. This thesis is interdisciplinary by objective. It intends to show the interest of using together theories, literature and fields coming from management, information science and communication when these disciplines are required to take into account the complexity of relationships but also co-construction between prosumers and SMEs, and management and employees. The research will be based inter alia on a total of 93 SMEs, audited by the author between 2010 and 2014.
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Isabelle Choquet. Environnements numériques et PME : figures du chaos et nouveaux usages. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BOR30016⟩. ⟨tel-01275650⟩

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