L'identification des mots au cours de la lecture - Doctorat de Troisième Cycle en Psychologie

Abstract : SUMMARY Document reference Courrieu, P. (1983). L'identification des mots au cours de la lecture [Word recognition in reading]. Doctoral thesis, Vol. 1, Aix-Marseille 1 University, Aix-en-Provence, December 1983, 409 p. Origin This document is a doctoral thesis in French, defended on December 22, 1983, at Aix-Marseille 1 University. The original paper document is available, together with two annex volumes including experimental materials and raw data, at Aix-Marseille University library (Aix-Schuman), cote TLD 3351/1*BULA (Vol. 1), TLD 3351/2*BULA (Vol. 2), and TLD 3351/3*BULA (Vol. 3). Contents This is a series of 12 experimental studies on the perceptual encoding processes involved in reading printed words silently. In a preliminary experiment (pp. 97-107), one exploited the fact that all nouns in French language have a gender. So, one can build grammatical nominal syntagms of the form LE PHARE, non-grammatical syntagms of the form LE NEIGE, and non-grammatical syntagms that are homophonic of grammatical syntagms, such as LE PAIRE, which is a homophone of the correct syntagm LE PERE. It was observed that when participants had to judge the grammaticality of such syntagms in an orthographic judgment task, it was more difficult to reject homophone syntagms than to reject non-homophone non-grammatical syntagms. When the participants were requested to make their judgment uniquely based on the phonological form of the stimuli, it was more difficult to accept homophone syntagms than to accept orthographically grammatical syntagms. It was concluded that both the use of an orthographic encoding and of a phonological encoding were automatic and irrepressible in printed word recognition. The next 11 experiments concerned orthographic coding. In experiment 1, fast left-to-right scanning effects involved in the discrimination of words were observed in a lexical decision task, while in experiment 2, left-to-right scanning effects were observed in an alphabetic decision task on rapidly presented non-words. Experiments 3-11 all used masked priming type techniques with a lexical decision task. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that non-alphabetical primes produce less masking effect than alphabetical primes, and that repeated letter primes produce less masking effect than primes made of different letters. This suggests that different occurrences of the same letter are not processed independently. Experiment 5 showed that the processing of letters has a local component and also a non-local one. The results also suggest that left-to-right serial effects observed in this experiment are not related to phonological encoding. Experiments 5-11 tested the effects of primes that were anagram of the target with various structures. It was concluded that non-positional letter codes activate the lexicon, and that bigrams are used to verify the structure of the stimulus, while the initial bigram is, in fact, made of the left space followed by the first letter of the word, and it plays a very important role in the word recognition. It was also observed that reverse bigrams (e.g. ON / NO) are perceptually antagonist, the first presented bigram tending to mask the second one, no matter their respective positions. A simple neuron-like model is proposed that detects bigrams from sequential responses of non-positional letter detectors. This model spontaneously generates the reverse bigram effect and makes new predictions concerning the perception of palindromes (RADAR).
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Pierre Courrieu. L'identification des mots au cours de la lecture - Doctorat de Troisième Cycle en Psychologie. Réseau de neurones [cs.NE]. Université de Provence (Aix-Marseille 1), 1983. Français. ⟨tel-01273401⟩

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