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Le frottement solide sec : le frottement de glissement et de non glissement. Étude des difficultés des étudiants et analyse de manuels

Abstract : The aim of the present work is to tackle the difficulties met by students as they were confronted with physical situations in which phenomena of sliding friction (kinetic friction) or nonsliding friction (static friction) between the non-lubricated contact zones of the solids concerned are at work ("frottement solid sec" or "dry solid friction"). The research is based on a "priori analysis" (the study of friction both from a physical and didactic point of view, a short exploratory survey, empirical classroom observations of teaching methods dealing with friction and a partial analysis of the reference textbooks used by students and teachers) where a number of questions and hypoteses are explicitly put forward. The second part is concerned with analyzing the results of (written) questionnaires submitted to students from different backgrounds (different countries of origin and different academic levels). These questionnaires were elaborated in order to test our hypotheses. The resulting analyses lead to a synthetic description of the students'ideas and ways of reasoning concerning frictioin. The students' ways of reasoning bear the following characteristics : the students seem to have a one-siled notion of friction (no-distinction between static and kinetic friction) which is represented by only one resultant of the contact forces (newton's third law is not applied) ; the resultant is located at interface level ("between" the solids) and only has an effect on the solid above the interface ("effet dessus-dessous", or "upper-lower effet"). This single force has a welldefined direction and is determined by the direction of the "effective" (given) motion of the solids studied - this single force is constantly opposed to the "effective" motion of the solids (the relative motion of the solids are not taken into consideration).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 16, 2016 - 4:04:42 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01273034, version 1

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Helena Caldas. Le frottement solide sec : le frottement de glissement et de non glissement. Étude des difficultés des étudiants et analyse de manuels. Enseignement de la physique [physics.ed-ph]. Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, 1994. Français. ⟨tel-01273034⟩

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