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A new antibacterial agent : in vitro bacteriological characterization and in vitro/in vivo performance of sustained release formulations

Abstract : Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health and new antimicrobials are urgently needed. CIN-102, a new antibacterial agent which resembles cinnamon essential oils composition, was developed by a pharmaceutical company. CIN-102 had a broad-spectrum of action and resistance was not developed until now. Between all the possible therapeutic applications for CIN-102, a future utilization against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is aimed. IBD are chronic pathologies with a multifactorial etiology. In this context, enteric bacteria are well-known to have an important role, and higher bacterial concentrations are found in the intestine under inflammatory conditions. The objectives of this work were: to characterize the bacteriological activity of CIN-102, to analyze the bacteriological activity of anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics used in IBD and to fabricate multiparticulate CIN-102 pharmaceutical forms for colonic targeted drug release. The idea is to use CIN-102 to reduce colonic bacterial loads and improve the state of intestinal inflammation. Methodology: The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), the Post-Antibiotic Effect (PAE) and the logarithmic reduction time of CIN-102 were determined against several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates. The interactions between CIN-102 and commercialized antibiotics were evaluated. The MIC of 5-aminosalicilyc acid, GED-0507-34 and antibiotics were determined for anaerobic bacterial isolates. Concerning sustained released formulations: CIN-102 pellet cores were fabricated by extrusion-spheronization and subsequently coated with blends of insoluble polymers and natural biodegradable polysaccharides. CIN-102 mini-tablets were fabricated by direct compression. In vitro drug released was measured in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. The efficacy of best sustained release formulations was assessed in a murine model of colitis. Samples of luminal contents and sections of the colon were taken to perform a bacteriological analysis. Expression of cytokines was analyzed from colonic tissues.Results and discussion: The broad-spectrum activity of CIN-102 was confirmed. All aerobic and anaerobic strains were susceptible to CIN-102. Furthermore, CIN-102 had an important PAE and exerted a fast logarithmic reduction of bacterial inoculum. It interacts synergistically with several antibiotics, mostly with colistin and aminoglycosides, restoring the antibiotic activity against multi-resistant bacteria. The promising in vitro activity of CIN-102 has to be further confirmed by animal studies. Anti-inflammatory agents used against IBD were not provided of antibacterial activity and neither of the antibiotics tested possessed a broad-spectrum of action against anaerobic isolates commonly found in the intestine. These results confirm the need of a broad-spectrum antibiotic capable of reduced increased bacterial loads during inflammation. Following this aim, oral dosage forms able to deliver CIN-102 into the colon were studied. Concerning the sustained release forms, in vitro CIN-102 release from coated-pellets and mini-tablets was reduced in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Colitic mice treated with CIN-102 controlled release formulations had less diarrhea and bloody stools. Furthermore, the concentrations of enterobacteria in colonic tissue and stool were significantly reduced in CIN-102 treated mice. These results show that sustained release formulations can effectively deliver CIN-102 in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract, where the reduction of enterobacteria seems to ameliorate the course of colitis.Conclusion: CIN-102 is novel broad-spectrum antibacterial and sustained release formulations can effectively deliver this agent into the colon, reducing bacterial loads which might influence the state of intestinal inflammation.
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Maria Susana Nieto Bobadilla. A new antibacterial agent : in vitro bacteriological characterization and in vitro/in vivo performance of sustained release formulations. Human health and pathology. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL2S018⟩. ⟨tel-01271047⟩

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