Modélisation de la connectivité larvaire et implications en terme de gestion de l'environnement

Abstract : Integrating ecological connectivity into marine ecosystem management and planning is important, especially in a global context of severe fish stocks depletion and growing habitat degradation. Environmental tools such as Marine Protected Areas have been proposed to protect biodiversity, restore damaged ecosystems, sustain fisheries, and rebuild overexploited stocks. The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends in part on the maintenance of connectivity between marine populations, linked by ecological processes such as larval dispersal. In this thesis, we applied a biophysical model driven by ocean currents derived from satellite altimetry to evaluate connectivity between Western Indian Ocean reefs and across the current MPA system in the Mediterranean Sea. We applied different methods of analysis such as graph-theoretic and clustering. In the Western Indian Ocean, marine connectivity analyses show that the number of connections between reefs increases with fish pelagic larval duration. It also highlights a low connectivity across the region and a high interconnectivity within several regions (Mozambique Channel, Mascarene archipelago). In the Mediterranean Sea, connectance is globally low at the regional scale. This connectance is more important in Western than Eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, the marine connectivity analyses revealed high domestic connectivity rates. Depending on the study area, priority reefs or sites for MPA implementation are proposed. Finally, implications for transboundary marine policies and regional cooperation are discussed.
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Estelle Crochelet. Modélisation de la connectivité larvaire et implications en terme de gestion de l'environnement. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de la Réunion, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LARE0003⟩. ⟨tel-01269631⟩

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