Représentations galoisiennes et groupe de Mumford-Tate associé à une variété abélienne

Abstract : Let $K$ be a number field and $A$ be a $g$-dimensional abelian variety over $K$. For every prime $ell$, the $ell$-adic Tate module of $A$ gives rise to an $ell$-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of $K$; in this thesis we set out to study the images of the Galois representations arising in this way.For various classes of abelian varieties a description of these images is known up to finite error, and the first aim of this work is to explicitly quantify this error for a number of different cases. We provide a complete solution for the case of elliptic curves without complex multiplication (and more generally for products thereof) and for geometrically simple abelian varieties of CM type. For other classes of abelian varieties we can only describe the Galois image when the prime $ell$ is above a certain bound (which we compute explicitly in terms of $A$, and which is polynomial in $[K:mathbb{Q}]$ and in the Faltings height of $A$): we obtain such results for geometrically simple, semistable abelian surfaces and for "$operatorname{GL}_2$-type" varieties. We also prove similar (but slightly weaker) results for many abelian varieties of odd dimension with trivial endomorphism algebra.We then consider the Galois action on non-simple abelian varieties, and we give sufficient conditions for the associated Galois representations to decompose as a product.Finally, we investigate the structure of the intersection between the cyclotomic extensions of a number field $K$ and the fields generated by the torsion points of an abelian variety over $K$, proving a uniformity property for the degrees of such intersections.
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Davide Lombardo. Représentations galoisiennes et groupe de Mumford-Tate associé à une variété abélienne. Théorie des nombres [math.NT]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS196⟩. ⟨tel-01266158⟩

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