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Compréhension du fonctionnement biologique et physico-chimique d'un biofiltre végétalisé pour le traitement de polluants atmosphériques urbains gazeux

Abstract : In town, underground car parks are confined spaces in witch large and complex pollution are accumulated. They are also a source of contamination of the external environment since the treatment of the air pumped out by ventilation system sis not regulated. In the framework of air treatment, using planted biofilter, combining bacteria and plants, is an innovative solution contributing to the improvement of urban air quality by reducing the dispersion of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. In a « research and development » context, the objective is to understand the biological and physico-chemical operation for improving operational control. This innovative study focuses on the treatment of high volumes of air containing a low concentrations of pollutants, such as NOx, VOCs (about 100 à 200 µg.m-3) through a thin planted biofilter. The use of a pilot-scale unit of biofiltration allowed to evaluate the influence of the plant, as well as the necessity of a fertilization, on the removal efficiency of such a system. In order to maximize the volumes of treated air while limiting the footprint of the planted biofilters, the superficial gas velocity has been increased and the thickness of the packing material decreased. The indigenous bacteria have been characterized by a functional study of the bacterial communities involved in the degradation of NOx and TEX on one part, and by a quantitative and qualitative study of the total bacterial community on the other part, by using molecular biology approaches, such a real-time PCR amplification, and pyrosequencing from metagenomic DNA. Results on pilot-scale unit have shown a removal efficiency greater than 97%, in all environmental conditions tested. Consequently, it seems possible to treat high volumes of air containing low concentrations of TEX through a thin planted biofilter. The presence of plants does not seem to have short-term impacts on the removal efficiency when a fertilizer promotes the nitrogen availability in the packing material. The evaluation of the global microbiological functioning showed the potential of microbial communities in the biodegradation of NOx and TEX in planted biofilters. The indigenous bacterial communities of the packing material and the mound of soil are rapidly able to adapt to the functioning conditions of such a system
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  • HAL Id : tel-01266052, version 1

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Anne Rondeau. Compréhension du fonctionnement biologique et physico-chimique d'un biofiltre végétalisé pour le traitement de polluants atmosphériques urbains gazeux. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LYO10012⟩. ⟨tel-01266052⟩

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