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Apports de la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque dans l'évaluation de la charge d'entraînement et le suivi d'athlètes : aspects méthodologiques et applications pratiques

Abstract : During the 1980s, it was demonstrated that studying heart rate variability (HRV) makes it possible to estimate the activity of the autonomic nervous system noninvasively. More specifically, many works showed that regular recording of HRV can be used to monitor an athlete’s capacity to adapt to training and their fatigue. Although several authors have suggested using this tool directly in the field, it appears that the lack of a common and uniform methodology sometimes makes it difficult to interpret results. Therefore the research presented in this manuscript follows a methodological tendency with, nonetheless, a practical objective. The first study focuses on the Low Frequency/High Frequency (LF/HF) ratio commonly used as a fatigue indicator. Our results show that in athletes, this ratio is above all modulated by the subject’s respiratory rate and that, contrary to what is currently accepted, a value higher than four does not necessarily express a state of overtraining. The second study compares the daily evolution of different HRV markers over 21 days monitoring of athletes in two different situations: recording of spontaneous breathing and of controlled respiration. We observed that RMSSD and SD1 markers follow precisely the same trends whatever the breathing method. Conversely, our results show once again that rate indexes are above all modulated by an individual’s breathing frequency. The third study focuses on a new HRV-based method for evaluating training load. Based on three recordings that include both the homeostatic disturbances generated by the session and the speed of parasympathetic reactivation, the method proposed permits objectively quantifying training load under field conditions. The strong interactions existing between HRV and training encourage us to continue our investigative approach and use this tool to individualize and optimize athletes’ training programs
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01265039
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Submitted on : Saturday, January 30, 2016 - 2:38:07 PM
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Damien Saboul. Apports de la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque dans l'évaluation de la charge d'entraînement et le suivi d'athlètes : aspects méthodologiques et applications pratiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LYO10083⟩. ⟨tel-01265039⟩

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