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La lithosphère du point triple Aden - Afar - sud mer Rouge et du golfe d'Aden : magmatisme et rupture continentale

Abstract : The Afar triple junction is a unique region that links the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Ethiopian rift, and where it is possible to study the different stages of continental breakup, from early rifting to seafloor spreading and development of continental passive margins. Extension and magmatic activity are generally thought to be restricted to the active volcanic segments of the rift or to oceanic ridges. However, magmatic activity is also present on the continental margins flanks of the Afar rift, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. The ambient noise tomography and teleseismic body-wave tomography are complementary methods that allow imaging the crust and upper mantle, and help to reveal magmatic systems. Our tomographic studies of the Afar region provide evidence for the presence of complex magmatic systems under the Afar rift flanks, currently modifying the crust and linked with hydrothermal systems near the surface. The emplacement of intruded or under-plated dense magmatic material in the Afar lower crust accommodates the extension outside of the active magmatic segments. In addition, the Red Sea margin flanks in Yemen are affected by magmatism caused by localized small-scale upwellings of mantle material, from a broad abnormally hot mantle zone located beneath Afar and southwestern Yemen. We also suggest the presence of magmatic systems with or without a volcanic expression at the surface, beneath the passive margins shoulders of the eastern Gulf of Aden. We propose that these systems could be fed by small-scale convection caused by lithosphere thickness variations at the edge of the Arabian plate and near the Gulf of Aden main fracture zones.
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Felicie Korostelev. La lithosphère du point triple Aden - Afar - sud mer Rouge et du golfe d'Aden : magmatisme et rupture continentale. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066341⟩. ⟨tel-01263696⟩

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