Etude expérimentale de neurones de Morris-Lecar : réalisation, couplage et interprétation

Abstract : We present in this manuscript an experimental electronic neuron based on complete Morris-Lecar model without simplifications, able to become an experimental unit tool to study collective association of robust coupled neurons. The circuit design is given in details according to the ionic currents of this model. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical prediction, leading to a good agreement between them, which therefore validates the circuit. We present the different areas according to the bifurcation control parameters, the membrane capacitance and the excitation current. We have highlighted the behavior of the neuron for each parameters zone. A coupling of such neurons is introduced by using Pspice simulations (Multisim) where neurons have been designed to be the same as the experimental one. First, we simulate a chain of up to 26 neurons weakly coupled along which anti-phase wave patterns propagate with phases in opposition 2 to 2. Second, about ten neurons are coupled, and we succeed to generate clusters based on the boundary conditions of theneurons and their initial conditions. For this study, we work in the region close to the fold bifurcation of limit cycles, where two limit cycles exist, one being stable and another one unstable. Our studies show that the system evolves to a state where only 1, 2 or 3 neurons remain in the oscillatory state, while others returned to a state of rest, which highlights a phenomenon of clustering. The use of some parts of the circuit is also possible for other neuron models, namely for those based on ionic currents.
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Rachid Behdad. Etude expérimentale de neurones de Morris-Lecar : réalisation, couplage et interprétation. Autre. Université de Bourgogne, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015DIJOS034⟩. ⟨tel-01257832⟩

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