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Capacités d’adaptation des populations naturelles à la contamination des milieux aquatiques : cas d’étude du cadmium chez le crustacé Gammarus fossarum

Abstract : Because they lead to changes in toxicological sensitivities and life history traits within field populations, evolutionary processes supporting adaptation to contamination challenge the relevance of environmental risk assessment of chemical contaminants. Hence their study becomes an important developing field of research in ecotoxicology. Focusing on the study of adaptive capacity of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum, this work aimed to gain insight into the effects of long term exposure to cadmium at the population scale in the field. By means of biomonitoring methodologies (caging), population demographic sampling, culture and exposure in the laboratory we identified a phenomenon of increased tolerance and modification of life history traits in a natural population historically exposed to cadmium. Quantitative genetics experiments conducted on three populations secondly demonstrated (1) a low heritability of sensitivity to cadmium in naïve populations ; and (2) a major role of parental effects induced by exposure as populational mechanism supporting the development of tolerance in this species. Finally, the characterization of the variability of cadmium sensitivity in the genus Gammarus (seventeen populations), and the analysis of the divergence of the tolerant population in comparison to this variability led us to discuss about the implications of these evolutionary processes induced by environmental exposure for risk assessment of chemicals. Thus, from these results it appears necessary to take into account adaptive responses induced by environmental contamination as a source of variability and uncertainty in order to provide a relevant risk assessment fully integrating all the impacts of environmental contamination on natural populations
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01256734
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Submitted on : Friday, January 15, 2016 - 11:52:06 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01256734, version 1

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Amandine Vigneron. Capacités d’adaptation des populations naturelles à la contamination des milieux aquatiques : cas d’étude du cadmium chez le crustacé Gammarus fossarum. Ecosystèmes. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LYO10100⟩. ⟨tel-01256734⟩

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