Rôle de corridor écologique des fossés pour la dispersion des espèces végétales dans les paysages agricoles

Abstract : The establishment of ecological networks is considered as one of the solutions to mitigate the negative effects of fragmentation on biodiversity. In agricultural landscapes, non-crop linear elements may form large networks, and constitute refuge habitats and/or dispersal corridors for plant species. The objective of this study is to understand which role may a dense drainage ditch network play for the maintenance and dispersal of plant species in an intensive agricultural landscape located in northern France. In addition, we also investigated the impact of landscape characteristics, network connectivity and plant species life-history traits on propagule dispersal within the ditch network. Our results indicate that ditches are indeed ecological corridors for plant species. By focusing more specifically on hydrochorous species, we demonstrated that they essentially depend on ditch network composition and connectivity and on elements immediately adjacent to the banks. The network also drives patterns of gene flow for two ditch bank plant species. Finally, our results also indicate that species’ response to ditch network connectivity depends on a combination of dispersal traits, and that connectivity reduction leads to functional convergence of those traits at the metacommunity scale. Together, these results provide a better understanding of the corridor role of ditches for plant species, in order to include these features into ecological network planning in agricultural landscapes.
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Lisa Favre-Bac. Rôle de corridor écologique des fossés pour la dispersion des espèces végétales dans les paysages agricoles. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Rennes 1, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015REN1S053⟩. ⟨tel-01256725⟩

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