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Evolution des lésions ischémiques aiguës en IRM de diffusion

Abstract : Within the first 24 hours after IV-rtPA, diffusion-weighted ischemic lesions can reverse, remain stable or grow. The aim of this thesis is to study these reversal and growth phenomena, to better understand their pathophysiology and to gain insight into the prognostic value of diffusion lesion volume. Diffusion lesion reversal was reported in animals and humans after arterial recanalization. In our sample of 155 patients, we studied this phenomenon with MRI performed before and 24 hours after thrombolysis using a voxel-based approach. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours diffusion reversal was frequent and sustained on a late MRI (median 54h) for over two-thirds of the voxels. Second, sustained reversal was associated with 24hr neurological improvement (OR=1.15, IC95%[ 1.03-1.27], P=0.008 per 1mL). Animal studies have suggested that white matter is more resistant to ischemia than gray matter. In humans, we confirmed that diffusion lesion reversal was more frequent in white matter than in gray matter and disclosed that white matter voxels were more prone to reverse than gray matter voxels. The amount of white matter in the initial diffusion lesion may therefore be a significant determinant of reversibility. Large diffusion lesion volume is associated with poor outcome. However, revascularization therapy can prevent infarct growth or even promote lesion reversal. It is still unclear whether these treatments are beneficial in patients with large diffusion volumes (≥70mL). In our series including 267 patients with middle cerebral artery stroke treated with thrombolysis, 54 patients had a ≥70mL diffusion volume, of which 12(22%) had a 3 month favorable outcome. Odds-ratio of recanalization for favorable outcome in the ≥70mL group was 4.87 [1.15-20.73], P=0.03 supporting a benefit of recanalization in this subgroup. Diffusion lesions growth is usually located within the ischemic penumbra. We hypothesized that if it occurred beyond its boundaries, it would translate into neurological deterioration. Unexplained early neurological deterioration is frequent (70% of early neurological deteriorations, 7% in our series of 309 thrombolysed patients) and its causes are not well-known (no symptomatic intra cerebral hemorrhage, malignant edema or post-stroke seizure). We confirmed our hypothesis in these patients with diffusion growth beyond the penumbra. This growth occurred in 9 of the 10 studied patients (7-137mL; > 10mL in 8 patients) and it was significantly larger than in the 30 controls with early neurological deterioration (P=0.047). Moreover its topography matched the neurological items that deteriorated. All together, these results contribute to a better understanding of acute ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted imaging and may offer perspectives to adapt individual patient care.
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Marie Tisserand. Evolution des lésions ischémiques aiguës en IRM de diffusion. Neurosciences. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB068⟩. ⟨tel-01255509⟩

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